• I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama Department of Architecture, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember



Direct evaporative cooling, residential building, thermal comfort, warm-humid tropic


Direct evaporative cooling has been widely known as the passive design strategy for ameliorating the thermal conditions of building in hot-dry climates. In the recent past, the strategy has been extended to warm-humid climates. The scope varies from exploring the system to applying the method to buildings. Few studies have been conducted regarding its application on a multi-story residential building. In response to this gap, the present study will explore the strategy's applicability on the typical low-rise housing in Surabaya and analyze its environmental consequences. Simulation is used as the primary method for the analyses. Results of the study show that direct evaporative cooling is applicable in warm-humid tropics, but with some notes regarding the increase of air humidity. Dimensional properties of the cooling pad can be arranged to minimize the increased humidity.


Abaranji, S., Panchabikesan, K., & Ramalingam, V. (2020). Experimental investigation of a direct evaporative cooling system for year-round ther-mal management with solar-assisted dryer. International Journal of Photoenergy. https://doi. org/10.1155/2020/6698904

Aflaki, A., Mahyuddin, N., & Baharum, M. R. (2016). The influence of single-sided ventilation towards the indoor thermal performance of high-rise residential building: A field study. Energy and Buildings, 126, 146–158. j.enbuild.2016.05.017

Aflaki, A., Mahyuddin, N., Mahmoud Awad, Z. A. C., & Baharum, M. R. (2014). Relevant indoor ventilation by windows and apertures in tropical climate: A review study. E3S Web of Confe-rences, 3. 0301025

Aflaki, A., Mahyuddin, N., Manteghi, G., & Baharum, M. (2014). Building Height Effects on Indoor Air Temperature and Velocity in High Rise Resi-dential Buildings in Tropical Climate. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Develop-ment, 07(07), 39–48. sol3/papers.cfm/abstract_id=2503559

Alfata, M. N. F., Hirata, N., Kubota, T., Nugroho, A. M., Uno, T., Ekasiwi, S. N. N., & Antaryama, I. G. N. (2015). Field investigation of indoor thermal environments in apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia: Potential passive cooling strategies for middle-class apartments. Energy Procedia, 78, 2947–2952. 2015.11.674

Anisa Budiani Arifah, M. S. A. dan A. M. N. (2017). Pengaruh Bukaan Terhadap Kenyamanan Termal Pada Ruang Hunian Rumah Susun Aparna Surabaya. Jurnal Mahasiswa Arsitektur, 5(7), 1–10.

Chetan, V., Nagaraj, K., Kulkarni, P. S., Modi, S. K., & Kempaiah, U. N. (2020). Review of Passive Cooling Methods for Buildings. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1473(1). https://doi. org/10.1088/1742-6596/1473/1/012054

Cowan, H. J. (1991). Handbook of Architectural Technology (H. J. Cowan (ed.)). Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Darmawan, I. M. Y., Wijaksana, H., & Suarnadwipa, N. (2021). Performansi Pendinginan Kombinasi Sistem Direct Dan Indirect Evaporative Cooling. Teknik Desain Mekanika, 10(1), 1181–1185.

Fahmi, M. R., Defiana, I., & Antaryama, I. G. N. (2018). Cross Ventilation in High-Rise Apart¬ment Building: Effect of Ventilation Shaft Aper¬ture Configuration on Air Velocity and Air Flow Distribution. IPTEK Journal of Proceedings Series, 4(1), 65. 6026.y2018i1.3509

Fernandes, J., & Silva, J. C. (2007). Passive cooling in Évora ’ s traditional architecture. 28th AIVC and 2nd Palencia Conference " Building Low Energy Cooling and Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century," August.

Gokarakonda, S., & Kokogiannakis, G. (2014). Inte-grated dehumidification and downdraught eva-pora¬tive cooling system for a hot-humid climate. 30th International PLEA Conference: Sustaina-ble Habitat for Developing Societies: Choosing the Way Forward - Proceedings, 2, 205–212.

Hussain, S., Kalendar, A., Rafique, M. Z., & Oosthui-zen, P. (2020). Numerical investigations of solar-assisted hybrid desiccant evaporative cooling system for hot and humid climate. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 12(6), 1–16. https://doi. org/10.1177/1687814020934999

Jain, N., & Shorey, G. (2015). Achieving thermal comfort by using ceiling fans in a naturally cooled office building in hot and humid climate of India. 14th International Conference of IBPSA - Building Simulation 2015, BS 2015, Conference Proceedings, December 2015, 1750–1756. https://pu¬¬¬

Kamal, M. A. (2012). An Overview of Passive Coo-ling Techniques in Buildings: Design Concepts and Architectural Interventions. Civil Engineer¬ing & Architecture, 55(1), 84–97.

Kamal, M. A. (2013). Evaluation of Evaporative Cooling Techniques for Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Study of Civil Engineering and Archi-tecture, 2(3), 61–65.

Kindangen, J.I, Luntungan, H., & Lumenta, A.. (2015). Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Thermal Com¬fort in Buildings in a Humid Tropical Climate. International Joint Conference Senvar-Inta-Avan, November 24–26.

Kindangen, Jefrey I, & Umboh, M. K. (2017). Design of evaporative-cooling roof for decreasing air temperatures in buildings in the humid tropics. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1818(March).

Koenigsberger, O. H., Ingersoll, T. G., Mayhew, A., & Szokolay, S. V. (1973). Manual of tropical housing and building. Part one. Climatic design. Longman.

Mehere, S. V, Mudafale, K. P., & Prayagi, S. V. (2014). Review of Direct Evaporative Cooling System With Its Applications. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 2(6), 995–999.¬¬ments/REVIEW-139.pdf

Mohammad, A. T., Mat, S. Bin, Sulaiman, M. Y., Sopian, K., & Al-Abidi, A. A. (2013). Experi-mental Performance of a Direct Evaporative Cooler Operating in Kuala Lumpur. Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering, 6(1), 15–20.

Mozaffari Ghadikolaei, F., Ossen, D. R., & Mohamed, M. F. (2020). Effects of wing wall at the balcony on the natural ventilation performance in medium-rise residential buildings. Journal of Building Engineering, 31(February), 101316.

Mujahid Rafique, M., Gandhidasan, P., Rehman, S., & Al-Hadhrami, L. M. (2015). A review on desic-cant-based evaporative cooling systems. Rene-wable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 145–159.

Obeidat, B., Kamal, H., & Almalkawi, A. (2021). CFD Analysis of an Innovative Wind Tower Design with Wind-Inducing Natural Ventilation Tech-nique for Arid Climatic Conditions. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22(2), 86–97. 0.12911/22998993/130894

Olgyay, V. (1972). Design with Climate: Bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism. Princeton University Press.

Prianto, E., Bonneaud, F., Depecker, P., & Peneau, J. (2000). Tropical-Humid Architecture in Natural Efficient Point of View, A Reference of Tradi-tional Architecture in Indonesia. International Journal on Architectural Science, 1(2), 80–95.

Santamouris, M., & Asimakopoulos, D. N. (2013). Passive cooling of buildings. Earthscan.

Seputra, J. A. P. (2018). Thermal Effectiveness of Wall Indoor Fountain in Warm Humid Climate. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engi-neering, 316(1).

Soebarto, V. I., & Handjarinto, S. (1998). Thermal Comfort Study In A Naturally Ventilated Residential Building In A Tropical Hot-Humid Climate Region. Proceedings of the Eleventh Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, June1-2, 482–491.

Sujatmiko, W., Dipojono, H. K., Soelami, F. X. N., & Soegijanto. (2015). Natural Ventilation and Temperature Conditions in Some High-rise Building Flats in Bandung and Jakarta in Perspective of Adaptive Thermal Comfort. Pro¬cedia Environmental Sciences, 28(December), 360–369. 07.045

Suryana, I. N., Suarnadwipa, I. N., & Wijaksana, H. (2014). Studi Eksperimental Performansi Pen-dingin Evaporative Portable Dengan Pad Berbahan Spon Dengan Ketebalan Berbeda. Teknik Desain Mekanika, 1(1), 67.

Susila, I. P. P., Wijaksana, H., & Suarnadwipa, I. N. (2019). Studi Laju Evaporasi Pada Direct Evaporative Cooling Berbahan Pad Jerami Padi dan Tapis Kelapa. Teknik Desain Mekanika, 8(4), 25. i01.p04

Suwannapruk, N., Prieto, A., & Janssen, C. (2020). "Designated"-desiccant integrated façade for the hot-humid climate of Bangkok, Thailand. Sus-tainability (Switzerland), 12(13), 1–27. https://

Taleghani, M., & Tenpierik, M. (1986). Environmental Impact of Courtyards — a Review and Com-parison of Residential. Journal of Green Build-ing, 7(2), 113–136.

Tantasavasdi, C., Srebric, J., & Chen, Q. (2001). Natural ventilation design for houses in Thailand. Energy and Buildings, 33(8), 815–824. https://

Wahab, I. A., Aziz, H. A., & Salam, N. N. A. (2019). Building design effect on indoor natural venti-lation of tropical houses. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, 10(1), 23–33. 30880/ijscet.2019.10.01.003

Wahab, I. A., & Ismail, L. H. (2012). Natural Ven-tilation Approach in Designing Urban Tropical House. Proceeding of International Conference of Civil & Environmental Engineering for Sus-tainability, Johor Bharu, April 1–11. https://

Yunianto, . (2018). Pemanfaatan Evaporative Coo¬ling untuk Meningkatkan Kenyamanan Ruang. Rotasi, 20(1), 29. 20.1.29-32

Zhai, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Pasut, W., Arens, E., & Meng, Q. (2015). Human comfort and per¬ceived air quality in warm and humid envi¬ron¬ments with ceiling fans. Building and Environ¬ment, 90(August), 178–185. 1016/j.buildenv.2015.04.003