USER’S PERCEPTIONS OF SACREDNESS (Case Study: Catholic Churches in Indonesia)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.9744/dimensi.48.1.37-46

Keywords:

Catholic church, sacredness, worshiper, sacred spirit, sacred object

Abstract

Sacredness in Catholic churches has two aspects: sacredness derived from the purpose and activities of worship and sacredness that arises from the physical and spatial aspects of a church building. The purpose of this study was to reveal factors that affect sacredness in Catholic churches from the perspective of the worshiper. The researchers conducted an exploratory qualitative research to collect text data related to the perception of Catholic church sacredness. The data were collected through an online questionnaire. The researchers also conducted an explanatory quantitative research to uncover the relationship between level of church sacredness and physical and nonphysical factors. The results showed that the ‘sacred spirit’ factor tends to be more dominant in affecting church sacredness compared to ‘sacred object’. Worshipers measure church sacredness according to ‘devoted reflection’, ‘relationship with God’, ‘quality of space’, ‘enclosure acculturation’, and ‘building style’.

References

Baker, S. J. (2014). Stabilitas or Mobilitas? Sacred Architecture, 26, 31–33.

Baring, R. V., Erasga, D. S., Garcia, L. dl R., Peracullo, J. C., & Ubaldo, L. R. (2016). The Young and the Sacred: An Analysis of Empirical Evidence from the Philippines. Young, 25(1), 26–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/1103308816665013

Bryant, F. B., & Yarnold, P. R. (2011). Principal-Component Analysis and Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. In L. G. Grimm & P. R. Yarnold (Eds.), Reading and Understanding Multivariate Statistics (pp. 99–136). American Psycological Association.

Bunyamin, A. S. (2012). Sakral dan Profan dalam Kaitan dengan Ritus Tubuh: Suatu Telaah Filsafati Melalui Agama dan Konsep Diri. Melintas, 23–38.

Burke, M. (1967). The Role of Song In the New Liturgy. Dominicana, 111–117.

Canter, D. (1977). The Psychology of Place. Architectural Press.

Costa, M., & Bonetti, L. (2016). Geometrical Factors in the Perception of Sacredness. Perception, 0(0), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0301006616654159

Creswell, J. W. (2008). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage Publications, Inc.

Dimock, G. (1964a). Architecture and Liturgy. Dominicana, 131–140.

Dimock, G. (1964b). Liturgy and Community. Dominicana, 349–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040571X4504830102

Eilouti, B. (2017). Sinan and Palladio: A comparative morphological analysis of two sacred precedents. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 6, 231–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2017.03.003

Estika, N. D., Kurniati, F., Kusuma, H. E., & Widyawan, F. B. (2017). Makna Kesakralan Gereja Katolik. Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan Indonesia, 6(3), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.32315/jlbi.6.3.195

Groat, L., & Wang, D. (2013). Architectural Research Method (Vol. 3, Issue 2). John Wiley & Sons. http://repositorio.unan.edu.ni/2986/1/5624.pdf

Heatubun, F. S. (2012). Liturgi Sakral yang Indah, Liturgi Indah yang Sakral. Melintas, 39–60. https://doi.org/10.26593/mel.v28i1.288.39-60

Henrie, R. L. (1972). The Perception of Sacred Space: the Case of Utah and Other Sacred Places in Mormondom. Brigham Young University.

Herzog, T. R., Gray, L. E., Dunville, A. M., Hicks, A. M., & Gilson, E. A. (2011). Preference and Tranquility for Houses of Worship. Environment and Behavior, 45(4), 504–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916511410422

Hildebrand, D. Von, Mcneil, B., & Crosby, J. F. (2016). The Second Theme of Architecture: Artistic Beauty from Aesthetics Vol. II. Sacred Architecture, 30, 21–25.

Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, J. . M. E., Swyers, J. P., Larson, D. B., & Zinnbauer, B. J. (2000). Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5914.00119

Hoffman, D. R. (2010). Seeking the Sacred in Contemporary Religious Architecture (M. J. Tevesz (ed.)). The Kent State University Press. https://doi.org/10.16926/i.2017.03.16

Jackson, R. H., & Henrie, R. (1983). Perception of Sacred Space Perception of Sacred Space. Journal of Cultural Geography, 3(2), 94–107.

Joye, Y., & Verpooten, J. (2013). An Exploration of the Functions of Religious Monumental Architecture From a Darwinian Perspective. Review of General Psychology, 17(1), 53–68. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029920

Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S., & Brown, T. (1989). Environmental Preference: A Comparison of Four Domains of Predictors. Environment and Behavior, 21(5), 509–530. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916589215001

Kieckhefer, R. (2004). Theology in Stone: Church Architecture from Byzantium to Berkeley. Oxford University Press, Inc. http://repositorio.unan.edu.ni/2986/1/5624.pdf

Kilde, J. H. (2008). Sacred Power, Sacred Space: An Introduction to Christian Architecture and Worship. Oxford University Press, Inc.

Lang, U. M. (2012). The Language of Babylon and Expression of the Sacred. Sacred Architecture, 22, 34–37.

Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Levi, D., & Kocher, S. (2012). Perception of Sacredness at Heritage Religious Sites. Environment and Behavior, 45(7), 912–930. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916512445803

Lidov, A. (2015). Creating the Sacred Space. Hierotopy as a new field of cultural history. Spazi i Percorsi Sacri. I Santuari, Le Vie, i Corpi, Civilta e Religioni, 61–90. http://hierotopy.ru/contents/LIDOV_Hierotopy_Spazi_ sacri_2015.pdf%5CnAll Papers/L/Lidov - Creating the Sacred Space. Hierotopy as a new field of cultural history.pdf

Mangunwijaya, Y. B. (1999). Gereja Diaspora. Kanisius.

Manning, K. C., Watkins, N. J., & Anthony, K. H. (2009). The People of The Steeple? An Examination of Sacramental Architecture among Parishoners. Sacred Architecture, 16, 17–19.

Martasudjita, E. (2005). Inkulturasi Gereja Katolik Di Indonesia: Problematik, pengertian dan teologi inkulturasi. Studia Philosophica et Theologica, 5(2), 127–145.

Meagher, B. R. (2015). Perceiving Sacred Space: Religious Orientation Moderates Impressions of Religious Settings. Environment and Behavior, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916515581626

Meagher, B. R. (2018). Deciphering the religious orientation of a sacred space: Disparate impressions of worship settings by congregants and external observers. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 55, 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.12.007

Pambudi, H. S. W. (2020). Gereja yang Cair: Gereja sebagai Ruang Perjumpaan dan Komunikasi. Universitas Sanata Dharma Yogyakarta.

Parker, T. K. (2010). The Modern Church in Rome: On the Interpretation of Architectural and Theological Identities, 1950-80. The University of Texas at Austin.

Ratzinger, J. (2000). Sacred Places: The Significance of the Church Building. In The Spirit of the Liturgy. Ignatius Press.

Riley, P. J. (2000). Spanish Colonial Sacred Architecture: The New Parish Church of San Juan Capistrano. Sacred Architecture, 19–21.

Roccasalvo, J. L. (2009). Called to Beauty through Iconography: Sacred Images in The Christian Tradition. Sacred Architecture, 16, 26–29.

Saunders, V. D. (2014). The Churches of Venice: Sacred Places of Museum Spaces. Journal of Interpretation Research, 61–64.

Saward, J. (2017). The Poverty of the Church and the Beauty of the Liturgy. Sacred Architecture, 31, 11–17.

Srisadono, Y. D. (2012). Konsep Sacred Space dalam Arsitektur Gereja Katolik. Melintas, 28(2), 182–206.

Stroik, D. G. (2012). The Church Building as a Sacred Place: Beauty, Transcendence, and the Eternal (First Edit). Liturgy Training Publications.

Sutrisno, M., & Putranto, H. (2005). Teori-Teori Kebudayaan. Penerbit Kanisius.

Swanson, C. (2017). The Human Figure and Contemporary Sacred Art. Sacred Architecture, 31, 28–30.

Thomas, J. A. (1994). Theory, Meaning & Experience In Church Architecture. University of Sheffield.

Trisno, R. (2017). Kesesuaian antara Tuntutan Liturgi dengan Konfigurasi Spasial dan Bentuk Bangunan Arsitektur Gereja Katolik. Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Bandung.

Trisno, R., Antariksa, & Salura, P. (2014). Sacred Existensial Expression of the Cathedral Church on the Jalan Katedral No.7 – Jakarta. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(6), 218–221.

Trisno, R., Antariksa, & Salura, P. (2015). The Harmony between the Sacred Function and the Expression Form in Santo Matias Rasul Church. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(11), 100–104.

Turner, R. W. J. (2000). Catholic Identity, the Building, the Reactions: A Viewpoint from Anthropology. Sacred Architecture, 27–28.

Verkaaik, O. (2013). Anthropological Perspectives. In O. Verkaaik (Ed.), Religious Architecture (pp. 7–24). Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14454-2_15

Ward, P. (2001). Liquid Church. Baker Books.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-02

Issue

Section

Articles