• Muhammad Fajri Romdhoni Universitas Sriwijaya https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3145-940X
  • Mahbub Rashid Interim Dean, School of Architecture and Design, University of Kansas, 1450 Jayhawk Blvd, Lawrence, KS 66045




government centers, urban geometry, street network, geometric and network centrality


Indonesia is one of the fastest-growing countries. It has about 50% of the population in the ASEAN region. The country is currently evolving and changing. The recent highlight is the country's plan to create a new capital city – moving from the megalopolitan Jakarta in the Java island to a new remote area in East Kalimantan. However, research on Indonesian cities remains very limited to provide an evidence base for planning a new capital city. A fundamental question arises: Should we plan Indonesia's new capital city following western models, or should we plan the city using traditional Indonesian city patterns?  This paper examines urban geometry to show similarities and differences in the government centers in 6 Indonesian provincial capitals. They are Jakarta, Bandung, Medan, Palembang, Surabaya, and the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The six capital cities will be analyzed and categorized using street grid patterns, street centrality, built-up area and open space distribution, and government center distances. This systematic and quantitative comparison of Cities will define the underlying traits and footprint in these Indonesian cities, and the findings could be considered suggestions and guidelines for the new Indonesian capital city. This study utilizes methods and measures using automation techniques to analyze and classify Indonesian government centers based on street networks and urban geometry. The methods include land use recognition techniques using satellite images; OpenStreetMap (OSM) processed using OSMnx; GIS multi-platform applications to run the spatial analysis. On the one hand, the study should contribute to urban design and capital city planning in Indonesia. On the other hand, it should provide methods for comparative studies of cities in developing countries.

Author Biography

Muhammad Fajri Romdhoni, Universitas Sriwijaya



Barron, Christopher, Pascal Neis, and Alexander Zipf. 2014. “A Comprehensive Framework for Intrinsic OpenStreetMap Quality Analysis.” Transactions in GIS 18 (6): 877–895.

Bennett, Jonathan. 2010. OpenStreetMap. Packt Publishing Ltd.

Boeing, Geoff. 2017. “OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 65: 126–139.

———. 2019. “Urban Spatial Order: Street Network Orientation, Configuration, and Entropy.” Applied Network Science 4 (1): 67.

Center, Pew Research. 2015. The Future of World Religions: Population Growth: Projections, 2010-2050. Pew Research Center.

Girres, Jean-François, and Guillaume Touya. 2010. “Quality Assessment of the French OpenStreetMap Dataset.” Transactions in GIS 14 (4): 435–459.

Gordon, David. 2006. Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities. Routledge.

Gottmann, Jean. 1985. “The Study of Former Capitals.” Ekistics, 541–546.

Haklay, Mordechai. 2010. “How Good Is Volunteered Geographical Information? A Comparative Study of OpenStreetMap and Ordnance Survey Datasets.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 37 (4): 682–703.

Hillier, B. 1996. Space Is the Machine UK. Cambridge University Press.

Hillier, B. Hanson, and Julienne Hanson. 1984. “J. 1984 The Social Logic of Space.” Cambridge University.

Hillier, Bill. 2007. Space Is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture. Space Syntax.

Jiang, B. 2015. Axwoman 6.3: An ArcGIS Extension for Urban Morphological Analysis. University of Gävle, Sweden.

Jiang, Bin. 2009. “Street Hierarchies: A Minority of Streets Account for a Majority of Traffic Flow.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science 23 (8): 1033–1048.

Jiang, Bin, Sijian Zhao, and Junjun Yin. 2008. “Self-Organized Natural Roads for Predicting Traffic Flow: A Sensitivity Study.” Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 2008 (07): P07008.

Kimmelman, Michael. 2017. “Jakarta Is Sinking so Fast, It Could End up Underwater.” The New York Times 21.

Langford, Mitchel. 1991. “The Areal Interpolation Problem: Estimating Population Using Remote Sensing in a GIS Framework.” In Handling Geographical Information: Methodology and Potential Applications, 55–77.

Li, Guiying, and Qihao Weng. 2005. “Using Landsat ETM+ Imagery to Measure Population Density in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 71 (8): 947–958.

Louf, Rémi, and Marc Barthelemy. 2014. “A Typology of Street Patterns.” Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11 (101): 20140924.

Lu, Dengsheng, Qihao Weng, and Guiying Li. 2006. “Residential Population Estimation Using a Remote Sensing Derived Impervious Surface Approach.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 27 (16): 3553–3570.

LYONS, STEPHANIE. 2015. “The Jakarta Floods of Early 2014: Rising Risks in One of the World’s Fastest Sinking Cities.” Liège Université, Viewed 15 October 2018.

Nations, United. 2018. The World’s Cities in 2018. https://www.un-ilibrary.org/content/publication/c93f4dc6-en.

Rashid, Mahbub. 2017. “The Geometry of Urban Layouts.”

Rashid, Mahbub, and Hadi Shateh. 2012. “The Dialectics of Functional and Historical Morphology in the Evolution of a City: The Case of the Stone Town of Zanzibar.” The Journal of Architecture 17 (6): 889–924.

Romdhoni, Muhammad Fajri, and Mahbub Rashid. 2019. “Street Angularity and Patterns in Palembang and Yogyakarta, Indonesia.” Proceedings of Indonesia Focus 1 (1).

Shateh, Hadi, and Mahbub Rashid. 2014. “The Relationship between the Governmental and Syntactic Cores: The Case of Tripoli, Libya.”

Southworth, Michael, and Peter M. Owens. 1993. “The Evolving Metropolis: Studies of Community, Neighborhood, and Street Form at the Urban Edge.” Journal of the American Planning Association 59 (3): 271–287.

Stavroulaki, Ioanna, Lars Marcus, Meta Berghauser Pont, and Leonard Carl Staffan Nilsson. 2017. “Representations of Street Networks in Space Syntax towards Flexible Maps and Multiple Graphs.” In 11th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2017, Lisbon, Portugal, 3-7 July 2017, 5:174–1.

Widodo, J. 2009. Arsitektur Indonesia Modern, Transplantansi, Adaptasi, Akomodasi Dan Hibridisasi in Nas, PJM (Ed.) Masa Lalu Dalam Masa Kini, Arsitektur Di Indonesia. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Wu, Changshan, and Alan T. Murray. 2003. “Estimating Impervious Surface Distribution by Spectral Mixture Analysis.” Remote Sensing of Environment 84 (4): 493–505.

———. 2007. “Population Estimation Using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Imagery.” Geographical Analysis 39 (1): 26–43.

Xia, Xiaolin. 2013. A Comparison Study on a Set of Space Syntax Based Methods: Applying Metric, Topological and Angular Analysis to Natural Streets, Axial Lines and Axial Segments.

Yuan, Yew, Richard M. Smith, and W. Fredrick Limp. 1997. “Remodeling Census Population with Spatial Information from Landsat TM Imagery.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 21 (3–4): 245–258.

Zielstra, Dennis, Hartwig H. Hochmair, and Pascal Neis. 2013. “Assessing the Effect of Data Imports on the Completeness of OpenStreetMap–AU Nited S Tates Case Study.” Transactions in GIS 17 (3): 315–334.