• MINTOROGO Danny Santoso Department of Architecture, Petra Christian University - Surabaya, Siwalankerto street, number 121-131, Surabaya



Thermal performance, roofing systems


Traditional roofing systems in the developing country likes Indonesia are still be dominated by the 30o, 45o, and more pitched angle roofs; the roofing cover materials are widely used to traditional clay roof tiles, then modern concrete roof tiles, and ceramic roof tiles. In the 90’s decay, shop houses are prosperous built with flat concrete roofs dominant. Green roofs and roof ponds are almost rarely built to meet the sustainable environmental issues. Some tested various roof systems in Surabaya were carried out to observe the roof thermal performances. Mathematical equation model from three references are also performed in order to compare with the real project tested. Calculated with equation (Kabre et al.), the 30o pitched concrete-roof-tile, 30o clay-roof-tile, 45o pitched concrete-roof-tile are the worst thermal heat flux coming to room respectively. In contrast, the bare soil concrete roof and roof pond system are the least heat flux streamed onto room. Based on predicted calculation without insulation and cross-ventilation attic space, the roof pond and bare soil concrete roof (greenery roof) are the appropriate roof systems for the Surabaya’s climate; meanwhile the most un-recommended roof is pitched 30o or 45o angle with concrete-roof tiles roofing systems.


Download data is not yet available.


Adamson, B., & Olle, A. (1993). Design for Climatization; Houses in Warm-Humid Areas. Building Issues, 5(1).

Bengtsson, L., Grahn, L., & Olsson, J. (2005). Hydrological Function of a Thin Extensive Green Roof in Southern Sweden. Nordic Hydrology, 36(3), 259-268.

Brenneisen, S. (2005). The World Green Roof Congress and Green Roof Week, 1st World Green Roof Congress, Opening Session.

Cengel, Y.A. (1998). Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach. McGraw Hill Company, New Jersey.

Celik, S.S., Morgan, W. A. & Retzlaff (2008). Energy Conservation Analysis of Various Green Roof Systems.

Czemiel Berndtsson, J. (2010). Green Roof Performance Towards Management of Runoff Water Quantity and Quality: A Review. Ecological Engineering, oi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.12.014.

Dawson, D. (2002). Plant-covered Roofs Ease Urban Heat, National Geographic News.

Francois, G., Laetitia, A., Boyer, H., & Rat, C. (2004). Implementation and Experimental Survey of Passive Design Specifications Used in New Low-cost Housing Under Tropical Climate. Energy and Buildings, 36, 353-366.

Givoni, Baruch (1994). Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Graham, P., & Kim, M. (2005). Evaluating the Stormwater Management Benefits of Green Roofs Through Water Balance Modeling. In: Green roofs for Healthy Cities Conference, New York.

Kabre C. (2010). A New Thermal Performance Index for Dwelling Roofs in the Warm Humid Tropics. Building and Environment, 45, 738-727.

Koeingsberger, O.H., Ingersoll, T.G., Mayhew, A., & Szokolay, S.V. (1980). Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part 1 Climatic Design. London, Longman.

Kh, V.S. (1995). Civil Engineering Standard Book. Bandung, Nova.

Kharrufa, S.N., & Yahyah, A. (2006). Roof Pond Cooling of Buildings in hot Arid Climates, Building and Environment, 43, 82-89.

Kohler, M., & Ries, R. (2007). Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Green Roofs . Building and Environment, 42, 2606-2613

Kosareo, L., Schmidt, M., Grimme, F.W., Laar, M., de Assuncao Paiva, V.L., & Tavares, S. (2002). Green Roofs in Temperate Climates and in the Hot-Humid Tropics – Far Beyond the Aesthetics . Environment Management Health, 13(4), 382-391.

Lau, A.K.K., Elias, S., & Lim, C.H. (2008). Thermal Performance Evaluation of Roofing Systems and Materials in Malaysia Residential Develop¬ment. In: Proceeding of 9th SENVAR and 2nd ISESEE Humanity and Technology, Shah Alam, Malaysia, 387-395.

Liu, K. (2003). Engineering Performance of Rooftop Gardens through Field Evaluation, National Research Council Canada: Institute for Research in Construction.

Mackey C.O., & Wright, L.T. (1943). Summer Comfort Factors as Influenced by the Thermal Properties of Building Materials. ASHRAE Transactions Heating, Piping & AC Section, 49, 148-74.

Mantens, J., Raes, D., & Hermy, M. (2006). Green Roofs as a Tool for Solving the Rain-Water. Runoff Problem in the Urbanized 21st Century. Landscape Urban Planning, 77, 217-226.

M. Ciampi, Leccese, F., & Tuoni, G. (2003). Venti-lated Facades Energy Performance in Summer Cooling of Buildings, Solar Energy, 75, 491-502.

Niachou, A.K., Papakonstantinou, M., Santamouris, A., Tsangrassouls, G. & Mihalakakou (2001). Analysis of the Green Roof Thermal Properties and Investigation of Its Energy Performance, Energy and Buildings, 33, 719-729.

Niles, PWB. (1976). Thermal Evaluation of a House Using a Moveable Insulation and Cooling System, Solar Energy, 18 (5).

Olgyay, V. (1992). Design with Climate. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.




How to Cite

Santoso, M. D. (2015). PREDICTING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ROOFING SYSTEMS IN SURABAYA. DIMENSI (Journal of Architecture and Built Environment), 42(1), 25-34.